Publications

Selected publications by faculty, staff, and students in the Occupational Ergonomics and Biomechanics Laboratory

Journal Articles

Lee, S., Liu, L., Radwin, R., and Li, J. Machine Learning in Manufacturing Ergonomics: Recent Advances, Challenges, and Opportunities, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6(3), 2377-3766, 2021.

Azari, D. P., Frazier, L. L., Miller, B. L., Pavuluri Quamme, S. R., Le, B. V., Greenberg, C. C., and Radwin, R. G., Modeling performance of open surgical cases, Simulation in Healthcare, In Press, 2021.

Hagenow, M., Senft, E., Radwin, R., X Gleicher, M., Mutlu, B., and Zinn, M., Corrective Shared Autonomy for Addressing Task Variability, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6(2), 3720-3727, 2021.

Zhang, Y-J., Liu, L., Huang, N., Radwin, R. and Li, J., From Manual Operation to Collaborative Robot Assembly: An Integrated Model of Productivity and Ergonomic Performance, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6(2):895-902, 2021. 

Azari, D. P., Miller, B. L., Le, B. V., Greenberg, J. A., Bruskewitz, R., Long, K. L., Chen, G., and Radwin, R. G., A comparison of expert ratings and marker-less hand tracking along OSATS-derived motion scales, IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 51(1), 22-31, 2021.

Jaeger, J., W., Adkins, S. C., Perez-Tamayo, S. C., Werth, K. E., Hansen, G., Nimunkar, A. J., and Radwin, R. G., Automated Device for Uncapping Multiple Size Bioanalytical Sample Tubes Designed to Reduce Technician Strain and Increase Productivity, SLAS Technology: Translating Life Sciences Innovation, 26(3), 320–326, 2021.

Greene, R. L., Lu, M. L., Barim, M. S., Wang, X., Hayden, M., Hu, Y. H. and Radwin, R. G., Estimating Trunk Angle Kinematics During Lifting Using a Computationally Efficient Computer Vision Method, Human Factors, In Press, 2020.

Miller, B., Azari, D., Gerber, R., Radwin, R., and Le, B., Evidence that female urologists and urology trainees tend to under rate surgical skills on self-assessment, Journal of Surgical Research, October (254), 255-260, 2020.

Li, Y., Wolf, M., Kulkarni, A., Bell, J., Chang, J., Nimunkar, A., and Radwin, R. G., In situ tremor in vitreoretinal surgery, Human Factors, In Press, 2020.

Azari, D. P., Miller, B. L., Le, B. V., Greenberg, C. C., and Radwin, R. G., Quantifying surgeon maneuvers across experience levels through marker-less hand motion kinematics of simulated surgical tasks, Applied Ergonomics, 87, 2020.

Ulbrich, J., Swader, R., Petry, G., Cox, B., Greene, R. L., Eliceiri, K., and Radwin, R. G., A syringe adaptor for reduced muscular strain and fatigue, Applied Ergonomics, 87, 2020.

Wang, X., Hu, Y. H., Radwin, R. G., and Lee, J. D., Temporal Frame Sub-Sampling for Video Object Tracking, Journal of Signal Processing Systems, DOI 10.1007/s11265-019-01488-z, 2019.

Wang X., Hu, Y. H., Lu, M. L., and Radwin, R. G., The accuracy of a 2D video-based lifting monitor, Ergonomics, 68(8), 1043-1054, 2019.

Azari, D. P., Hu, Y. H., Miller, B. L., Le, B. V., and Radwin, R. G., Using surgeon hand motions to predict surgical maneuvers, Human Factors, DOI: 0018720819838901, In Press, 2019.

Azari, D., Pugh, C., Greenberg, C., Wiegmann, D., and Radwin, R., In search of characterizing surgical skill, Journal of Surgical Education, 76(4), 2019.

Greene, R., Hu, Y. H., Difranco, N., Wang, X., Lu, M. L., Bao, S., Lin, J. H., and Radwin, R. G., Predicting sagittal plane lifting postures from worker image bounding box dimensions, Human Factors, 61 (1), 64-77, 2019. [PDF]

Nimunkar, A., Marty, B., Musa, K., and. Radwin, R. Design of ergonomic tools for commercial laboratory technicians, Ergonomics in Design, March 2019.

Azari, D. P., Frasier, L. L., Pavuluri Quamme, S. R., Greenberg, C. C., Pugh, C., Greenberg, J. A., and Radwin, R. G., Modeling surgical technical skill using expert assessment for automated computer rating, Annals of Surgery, 269(3), 2019.

Pearce, M., Mutlu, B., Shah, J. and Radwin. R., Optimizing Makespan and Ergonomics in Integrating Collaborative Robots into Manufacturing Processes, IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 2018. [PDF]

Akkas, O., Lee, C-H., Hu, Y. H., Harris Adamson, C., Rempel, D., and Radwin, R. G., Measuring exertion time, duty cycle and hand activity level for industrial tasks using computer vision, Ergonomics, 60(12), 1730-1738, 2017.

Greene, R. L., Azari, D. P., Hu, Y. H., and Radwin, R. G., Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision, Applied Ergonomics, 65, 461-472, 2017.  Radwin, R. G., Lee, J. D., and Akkas, O., Driver movement patterns indicate distraction and engagement, Human Factors, 59(5), 844-860, 2017.

Chen, K. B., Sesto, M. E., Ponto, K. B., Leonard, J., Mason, A., Vanderheiden, G., Williams, J., and Radwin. R. G., Use of Virtual Reality Feedback for Patients with Chronic Neck Pain and Kinesiophobia, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, 25(8), 1240-1248, 2017.

Nimunkar, A. J., Chum, K. S., Phung, N., Wreksoamodjo, K., Yen, T. Y. and Radwin, R. G., Reducing thumb extensor risk in laboratory rat gavage, Applied Ergonomics, 58, 151-155, 2017.

Buchanan, K., Maza, M., Pérez-Vázquez, C. E., Yen, T. Y., Kijowski, R., Liu, F., and Radwin, R. G., Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock controlled hammer, Clinical Biomechanics, 38, 22-28, 2016. [PDF]

Frasier, L. L., Azari, D., Ma, Y., Pavuluri Quamme, S., Yang, L., Radwin, R. G., Pugh, C.M., Yen, T. Y., and Greenberg, C., A marker-less technique for measuring kinematics in the operating room, Surgery, 160(5), 1400-1413, 2016. [PDF]

Akkas, O., Lee, C-H, Hu, Y. H., Yen, T. Y., and Radwin, R. G., Measuring elemental time and duty cycle using automated video processing, Ergonomics, 59(11), 1514-1525, 2016. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Chourasia, A., Fronczak, F. J., Subedi, Y., Howery, R., Yen, T. Y., Sesto, M. E., and Irwin, C. B., Predicting tool operator capacity to react against torque within acceptable handle deflection limits in automotive assembly, Applied Ergonomics, 54, 205-211, 2016. [PDF]

Azari, D. P., Pugh, C. M., Laufer, S., Kwan, C., Chen, C-H, Yen, T. Y., Hu, Y. H. and Radwin, R. G., Evaluation of simulated clinical breast exam motion patterns using marker-less video tracking, Human Factors, 58(3), 427-440, 2016. [PDF]

Chen, K. B., Xu, X., Lin, J-H., and Radwin, R. G., Evaluation of Older Driver Head Functional Range of Motion using Portable Immersive Virtual Reality, Experimental Gerontology, 70, 150-156, 2015.  [PDF]

Chen, C-H., Azari, D., Hu, Y. H., Lindstrom, M., Thelen, D., Yen, T., and Radwin, R. G., The accuracy of conventional 2D video for quantifying upper limb kinematics in repetitive motion occupational tasks, Ergonomics, 58(12), 2057-2066, 2015. [PDF]

Irwin, C.B., Towles, J.D and Radwin, R.G., Multi-Axis Grip Characteristics for Varying Handle Diameters and Effort, Human Factors, 57(2), 227-237, 2015. [PDF]

Chen, K. B., Ponto, K. B, Tredinnick, R. D. and RadwinR. G., Virtual Exertions: Evoking the sense of exerting forces in virtual reality using gestures and muscle activity, Human Factors, 57(4), 658-673, 2015. [PDF]

Xu, X., Chen, K. B., Lin, J. H., and Radwin, R. G., The accuracy of the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display during cervical spine mobility measurement, Journal of Biomechanics, Jan 19, 2015. [PDF]

Akkas, O., Azari, D. P., Chen, C. H. E., Hu, Y. H., Ulin, S. S., Armstrong, T. J., Rempel, D. and Radwin, R. G. A hand speed–duty cycle equation for estimating the ACGIH hand activity level rating. Ergonomics, 58(2), 184-194, 2015. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Azari, D. P., Lindstrom, M. J., Ulin, S. S., Armstrong, T. J., and Rempel, D., A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level, Ergonomics, 58(2), 173-183, 2015. [PDF]

Chen, K. B., Kimmel, R. A., Bartholomew, A., Ponto, K., Gleicher, M. L. and Radwin, R. G., Manually locating physical and virtual reality objects, Human Factors, 56(6), 1163-1176, 2014. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Chourasia, A. O., Howery, R. S., Fronczak, F. J., Yen,  T. Y., Subedi, Y., and Sesto, M. E.  Factors Influencing Power Hand Tool Fastening Accuracy and Reaction Forces, Human Factors, 2014. [PDF]

Glarner, C.E., Hu, Y.Y., Chen, C.H., Radwin, R.G., Zhao, Q., Craven, M.W., Wiegmann, D.A., Pugh, C.M., Carty, M.J. and Greenberg, C.C., 2014. Quantifying technical skills during open operations using video-based motion analysis. Surgery156(3), pp.729-734. [PDF]

Ponto, K., Gleicher, M., Radwin, R. G., and Shin, H. J.  Perceptual calibration for immersive display environments, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 19(4), 691-700, 2013. [PDF]

Chen, C-H., Hu, Y. H., Yen, T. Y. and Radwin, R. G.  Automated Video Exposure Assessment of Repetitive Hand Motion, Human Factors, 55(2), 298 – 308, 2013. [PDF]

Irwin, C.B., Towles, J. D., Radwin, R. G.  Development and Application of a Multi-Axis Dynamometer for Measuring Grip Force, Ergonomics 56 (12), 1841-1849, 2013. [PDF]

Ponto, K., Kimmel, R., Kohlmann, J., Bartholomew, A., and Radwin, R. G. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation. In 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2012 IEEE Symposium on (pp. 85-88). IEEE., 2012. [PDF]

Felton, E. A., Williams, J. C., Vanderheiden, G. C and Radwin, R. G.  Mental Workload during Brain-Computer Interface Training, Ergonomics, 55(5), 526-537, 2012 [PDF]

Felton, E. A., Radwin, R. G., Wilson, J. A. and Williams, J. C. Evaluation of a modified Fitts law brain-computer interface target acquisition task in able and motor disabled individuals, Journal of Neural Engineering, 6(5), 056002, 2009. [PDF]

Chourasia, A. O., Sesto, M. E. Block, W. F., and Radwin, R. G. Prolonged mechanical and physiological changes in the upper extremity following short-term simulated power hand tool use, Ergonomics 52(1), 15-24, 2009. [PDF]

Irwin, C. B. and Radwin, R. G. A new method for estimating hand internal loads from external force measurements, Ergonomics, 51(2):156-67, 2008. [PDF]

Sesto, M. E., Chourasia, A. O., Block, W. F., and Radwin, R. G. Mechanical and magnetic resonance imaging changes following eccentric or concentric exertions, Clinical Biomechanics,23(7),961-8, 2008.  [PDF]

Felton, E. A., Lewis, N. L., Wills, S. A., Radwin, R. G., and Williams, J. C. Neural signal based control of the Dasher writing system, Neural Engineering, Proceedings of the 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, 366-370, 2007.  [PDF]

Yen, T. Y. and Radwin, R. G. Usability testing by multimedia video task analysis. Medical Instrumentation: Accessibility and Usability Considerations, 159-172. [PDF]

Meyer, R. H. and Radwin, R. G. Comparison of stoop versus prone postures for a simulated agricultural harvesting task, Applied Ergonomics, 38(5), 549-55. 2007 [PDF]

Ku, C. H., Radwin, R. G., and Karsh B. T.  Power hand tool kinetics associated with upper limb injuries in an automobile assembly plant, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 4(6), 391-9, 2007. [PDF]

Sesto, M. E. and Radwin R. G., Block, W., and Best, T. M.  Assembly worker upper limb dynamic mechanical properties, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 3(2), 72-79, 2006. [PDF]

Sesto, M. E., Radwin, R. G., and Richard, T. G. Short-term changes in upper extremity dynamic mechanical response parameters following power hand tool use. Ergonomics, 48(7), 807-820, 2005. [PDF]

Lin, J. H, Radwin, R. G., and Nembhard , D. A.  Ergonomics applications of a mechanical model of the human operator in power hand tool operation, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2(2), 111-9, 2005. [PDF]

Sesto, M. E., Radwin, R. G., Block, W. F. and Best, T. M. Anatomical and mechanical changes following repetitive eccentric exertions, Clinical Biomechanics, 20 (1), 41-49, 2005. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Sesto, M. E., and Zachary, S. V. Functional tests for quantifying recovery following carpal tunnel surgery, Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 86-A(12):2614-20, 2004.  [PDF]

Sesto, M. E., Radwin, R. G., Best, T. M., and Richard, T. G.  Upper limb mechanical changes following short duration repetitive eccentric exertions, Clinical Biomechanics, 19 (9), 921-928, 2004.

Edgren, C. S., Radwin, R. G., and Irwin, C. B.  Grip Force Vectors for Varying Handle Diameters and Hand Sizes, Human Factors, 46(2), 244-351, 2004. [PDF]

Lin, J. H, Radwin, R. G., and Richard, T. G.  Handle dynamics predictions for selected power hand tool applications, Human Factors, 45(4), 645-656, 2003. [PDF]

Lin, J. H, Radwin, R. G., and Richard, T. G. A single-degree-of-freedom dynamic model predicts the range of human responses to impulsive forces produced by power hand tools, Journal of Biomechanics, 36(12), 1845-1852, 2003. [PDF]

Lin, J. H.,  Radwin, R. G., Fronczak, F. J., and Richard, T. G.  Forces associated with pneumatic power screwdriver operation: statics and dynamics, Ergonomics, 46(12), 1161–1177, 2003. [PDF]

Sesto, M. E., Radwin R. G., Salvi, F. J. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 44(2),133-40, 2003. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Marras, W. S., and Lavender, S. L. Biomechanical aspects of work related musculoskeletal disorders, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Systems, 2(2), 2002. [PDF]

Yen, T. Y. and Radwin, R. G. A comparison between analysis time and inter-analyst reliability using spectral analysis of kinematic data and posture classification, Applied Ergonomics, 33(1), 85-93, 2002. [PDF]

Szabo, R. L. Radwin, R. G., and Henderson, C. J. The influence of knife sharpness on poultry processing operator exertions and the effectiveness of re-sharpening, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 62(4), 428-433, 2001. [PDF]

Lin, J. H., Radwin, R. G., and Richard, T. G.  Dynamic model of the hand and arm in pistol grip power hand tool usage, Ergonomics, 44(3), 2001. [PDF]

Yen, T. Y and Radwin, R. G. Comparison between spectral analysis and observational analysis for quantifying biomechanical stress in repetitive industrial work, Ergonomics, 43(1), 106-132, 2000. [PDF]

Weigert B.J., Rodriquez A. A., Radwin R. G., and Sherman J., Neuromuscular and psychological characteristics in subjects with work-related forearm pain, American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 78(6), 545-51, 1999.

Yen, T. Y. and Radwin, R. G., Automated job analysis using upper extremity biomechanical data and template matching, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 25(1), 19-28, 1999. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G. and Ruffalo, B. A. Computer key switch force-displacement characteristics and short-term effects on localized fatigue, Ergonomics, 42(1), 160-170, 1999. [PDF]

Lin, M. L. and Radwin, R. G. Validation of a frequency-weighted filter for continuous biomechanical measurements of repetitive wrist flexion against a load, Ergonomics, 41(4), 476-484, 1998. [PDF]

Lin, M. L. and Radwin, R. G. Agreement between a frequency-weighted filter for continuous biomechanical measurements of repetitive wrist flexion against a load and published psychophysical data, Ergonomics, 41(4), 459-475, 1998. [PDF]

Oh, S. and Radwin, R. G. The influence of target torque and torque build-up time on physical stress in right angle nutrunner operation, Ergonomics, 41(2), 188-206, 1998. [PDF]

Beebe, D. J., Denton, D. D., Radwin, R. G. and Webster, J. G.  A silicon-based tactile sensor for finger-mounted applications, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 45(2), 151-159, 1998. [PDF]

Jeng, O. J., Radwin, R. G., Moore, J. S., Roberts, M., Garrity, J., and Oswald, T.  Preliminary evaluation of a sensory and psychomotor functional test battery for carpal tunnel syndrome, part 2: selected industrial subjects, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58, 885-892, 1997. [PDF]

Jeng, O. J., Radwin, R. G., and Fryback, D. J.  Preliminary evaluation of a sensory and psychomotor functional test battery for carpal tunnel syndrome, part 1: confirmed cases and normals, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58, 852-860, 1997. [PDF]

Oh, S., Radwin, R. G. and Fronczak, F. J.  A dynamic mechanical model for hand force in right angle nutrunner operation, Human Factors, 39(3), 497-506, 1997. [PDF]

Lin, M. L., Radwin, R. G., and Snook, S. H.  A single metric for quantifying biomechanical stress in repetitive motions and exertions, Ergonomics, 40(5), 543-558, 1997. [PDF]

Oh, S. A., and Radwin, R. G. The effects of power hand tool dynamics and workstation design on handle kinematics and muscle activity. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics20(1), 59-74, 1997. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G. and Jeng, O. J.  Activation force and travel effects on overexertion in repetitive key tapping, Human Factors, 39(1), 130-140, 1997. [PDF]

Schaab, J. A., Radwin, R. G., Vanderheiden, G. C., and Hansen, P. K.  A comparison of two control-display gain measures for head-controlled computer input devices, Human Factors, 38(3), 390-403, 1996. [PDF]

Carvalho, A. A. and Radwin, R. G.  A new method for extending the range of conductive polymer sensors for contact force, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 17(3), 285-290, 1996.

Beebe, D. J., Hsieh, A. S., Denton, D. D., and Radwin, R. G.  A silicon force sensor for robotics and medicine, Sensors & Actuators, 50 (1-2), 55-65, 1996.

Jeng, O. J. and Radwin,R. G.  A gap detection tactility test for measuring sensory deficits associated with carpal tunnel syndrome, Ergonomics, 38(12), 2588-2601, 1995. [PDF]

Yen, T. Y. and Radwin, R. G.  A video-based system for acquiring biomechanical data synchronized with arbitrary events and activities, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 42(9),944-948, 1995. [PDF]

Ceron, R. J., Radwin, R. G., and Henderson, C.  Hand skin temperature variations for work in moderately cold environments and the effectiveness of periodic rewarming, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 56(5), 558-567, 1995. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Lin, M. L., and  Yen,T. Y.  Rapid Communication. Exposure assessment of biomechanical stress in repetitive manual work using frequency-weighted filters, Ergonomics, 37(12), 1984-1998, 1994. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Jeng, O. J., and Gisske, E. T.  A new automated tactility test instrument for evaluating hand sensory function, IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 1(4), 220-225, 1994.

Yoon, J. S. and Radwin,  R. G.  The accuracy of consumer-made body measurements for women’s mail order clothing, Human Factors, 36(3), 557-568, 1994. [PDF]

Jeng, O. J., Radwin, R. G., and Rodriquez, A. A.  Functional psychomotor deficits associated with carpal tunnel syndrome, Ergonomics, 37(6), 1055-1069, 1994. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G. and Lin, M. L.  An analytical method for characterizing repetitive motion and postural stress using spectral analysis, Ergonomics, 36(4), 379-389, 1993. [PDF]

Rodriquez, A. A., Radwin, R. G., and Jeng, O. J.  Median nerve electrophysiologic parameters and psychomotor performance in carpal tunnel syndrome, Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 33, 311-319, 1993.

Oh, S. and Radwin,  R. G.  Pistol grip power tool handle and trigger size effects on grip exertions and operator preference, Human Factors, 35(3), 551-569, 1993. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Oh, S., Jensen, T. R., and Webster J. G.  External finger forces in submaximal static prehension, Ergonomics, 35(3), 275-288, 1992. [PDF]

Lin, M. L., Radwin, R. G., and Vanderheiden, G. C.  Gain effects on performance using a head-controlled computer input device, Ergonomics, 35(2), 159-175, 1992. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Masters, G. P., and Lupton,F. W.  A linear force summing hand dynamometer independent of point of application, Applied Ergonomics, 22(5), 339-345, 1991. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Wertsch, J. J., Jeng, O-J, and Casanova, J.  Ridge detection tactility deficits associated with carpal tunnel syndrome, Journal of Occupational Medicine, 33(6), 730-736, 1991. [PDF]

Jensen, T. R., Radwin, R. G., and Webster, J. G.  A conductive polymer sensor for measuring external finger forces, Journal of Biomechanics, 24 (9), 851-858, 1991. [PDF]

Ulin, S. S., Armstrong, T. J., & Radwin, R. G. (1990). Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work. Applied ergonomics21(2), 143-151. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Vanderheiden, G. C. and Lin, M. L.  A method for evaluating head-controlled computer input devices using Fitts’ law, Human Factors, 32(4), 423-438, 1990. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Armstrong, T. J, and VanBergeijk, E.  Vibrating power hand tools used in automotive assembly, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 51(9), 510–518, 1990. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., VanBergeijk, E., and  Armstrong, T. J.  Muscle response to pneumatic hand tool reaction forces, Ergonomics, 32(6), 655–673, 1989. [PDF]

Armstrong, T. J., Fine, L. J, Radwin, R. G. and Silverstein, B. S.  Ergonomics and the effects of vibration in hand intensive work, Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 13, 286-289, 1987. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G., Armstrong, T. J. and Chaffin, D. B.  Power hand tool vibration effects on grip exertions, Ergonomics, 30(5), 833-855, 1987. [PDF]

Radwin, R. G. and Armstrong, T. J. Assessment of hand vibration exposure on an assembly line, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 46(4), 211-219, 1985. [PDF]

Other Publications

Parasuraman, R., Hancock, P., Radwin, R., and Marras, W., Defending the Independence of HF/E Science, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Bulletin, 46(11), 1, 5, 2003.

Panel on Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace, Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 2001.

Steering Committee for the Workshop on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries: The Research Base, Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Report, Workshop Summary, and Workshop Papers, National Research Council, National Academy Press, 1999.

Radwin, R. G., Biomechanical Aspects of Hand Tools, in Nordin, M., Pope, M. H., & Andersson, G. (Eds.), Musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace: principles and practice. Mosby, 2007.

Radwin, R. G. and Haney, J. T., An Ergonomics Guide to Hand Tools, Fairfax, VA, American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1996. [PDF]